Author: Hill EG, Johnson HB, et al.
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA)79 (1982)953-957.
Publication Date: 2/1/1982
Rats were fed purified diets containing (i) partially hydrogenated soybean oil as source of isomeric octadecenoic acids, (ii) hydrogenated coconut oil as source of saturated fatty acids, and (iii) a low level of corn oil as low-fat control. All diets contained 18% of the linoleate requirement. Rat liver and heart phospholipids were analyzed by gas/liquid chromatography for fatty acids, and liver, microsomes were assayed for desaturase (acyl-CoA, hydrogen-donor: oxidoreductase, EC 188.8.131.52) activities. Products of desaturation reactions measured analytically provided more information with greater statistical significance than did the enzymatic assays. Rats fed isomeric octadecenoic acids showed more severe essential fatty acid deficiency than did saturated-fat and control groups. The suppression of linoleate metabolites was largely due to decreased delta 5 and delta 6 desaturase activities. At several levels of linoleate, the deficiency was more severe at the higher level of isomeric octadecenoic acids. Increasing the intake of linoleate to 7.5% of calories did not suppress deposition of isomeric unsaturated acids in tissue lipids.